1450 CE - 1750 CE

- Due to the massive migration movements and trading networks of the early time period, the world became more aware of one another in the Eurasian and African regions. However, the Americas was still relatively isolated from the rest of the world.
- The demand for establishing trade and rise of the merchant class led to a greater need for expansion, especially by the Europeans who were rising from the ashes of the Middle Ages.
- The population was steadily increasing because of improvements in agriculture and increased wealth from trade and urbanization. This was associated with the scientific and technological developments and increase in knowledge which would lead to very powerful civilizations.
- The end of the 600-1450 CE era saw an increase in centralization and the rise of nation-states. The acquisition of wealth based on land was slowly transforming into acquiring goods and developing money-market systems. With heightened security and stability, artistic expression was gaining notoriety and production.

- Increase in trade, urbanization, wealth, and the merchant class, but was dominated by the Italian city-states.
- Europe's quest to secure the markets in the East (India and China), but were cut off by the Ottoman Empire.
- MERCANTILISM: The dominant economic theory of Europe during 1450-1750 CE. European nations prospered by possessing a FAVORABLE BALANCE OF TRADE whereby exporting more than importing. A nation must seek to control raw materials, including GOLD and SILVER (primary sources of wealth/currency). The state/government controlled the economy directly and under strict guidelines.
- The rising nation-states demand to increase their power and wealth through expansion.
- Europe's destiny to expand Christianity and seek converts.
- Missionaries.
- Use and develop new scientific and technological discoveries.
- Seeking knowledge, glory and fame, and wealth.
- Europe's acquisition of new technologies from foreign civilizations. The Europeans discovered the use of the COMPASS from the Chinese. Navigational and astronomical knowledge from the Muslims, such as the ASTROLABE. The Europeans began building faster and larger ships capable of longer voyages and handle the rough waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The introduction of the rudder and larger sails improved speed and direction. The Europeans also assimilated gunpowder technology to easily conquer new territories for expansion.
- HENRY THE NAVIGATOR of Portugal established schools and shipyards to study navigation and exploration.
- The Europeans could not take advantage of the Mediterranean Sea and travel East by land due to the collapse of security, the hostility of the Muslims in the Middle East, and the monopoly of the Italian city-states in the Mediterranean.
- Bartolomeu Dias sailed along Africa's western coast and rounded the tip of southern Africa reaching the Indian Ocean in 1488.
- Vasco da Gama rounded the CAPE OF GOOD HOPE in 1498 CE and made it to India where he returned with Indian spices and spawned more and more voyages.
- The Portuguese attempted to conquer the Indian Ocean region through their advanced technology and force. They captured major ports along East Africa, southern India (GOA), and Southeast Asia. They captured the port at MALACCA on the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula in 1511 CE and made contacts with Chinese merchant sailors.
- However, the Portuguese never expanded into the Indian Ocean regions and establish large colonies. They monopolized the maritime trade. They forced merchant sailors to purchase Portuguese passports and make business only with the Portuguese.
- When the Americas were discovered, the Portuguese established colonies in Brazil.
- Portugal became extremely wealthy from its enterprises in the Indian Ocean, but never became a significant European power in the world.
- As Spain reconquered the Iberian Peninsula, they fell behind the Portuguese and lost an opportunity to acquire wealth from the region. They needed a new route.
- Beginning with the voyages of CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, the Spanish set their sails toward the West believing they would reach the Far East from that direction.
- In 1492 CE, Columbus landed in the Caribbean islands believing he had reached India. With subsequent Spanish voyages (Vasco de Balboa sighting the Pacific from Central America and FERDINAND MAGELLAN's circumnavigation of the globe), the Europeans would realize their discovery of two continents in the Americas and a grand opportunity to exploit the region and lead to other European nations to follow suit, including the Dutch, French, and English.
Treaty of Tordesillas
- The Spanish and Portuguese were on the verge of war unless they figured out who controlled what in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans.
- The Pope negotiated the TREATY OF TORDESILLAS which split up the globe between Spain and Portugal by drawing LINES OF DEMARCATION. The Portuguese were given rights to the Indian Ocean and Brazil. However, the Spanish acquired most of the Americas.

Conquest and Conquistadors
- The Americas were ripe with resources and land, but not devoid of people and civilizations. The North American peoples, Aztecs, and Incas were thriving and awed by the arrival of the Europeans.
- The CONQUISTADORS used their superior military technology (cavalry, gunpowder, armor), native alliances, and determination to conquer the people of the Americas. HERNAN CORTEZ conquered the Aztecs in 1521 CE and FRANCISCO PIZARRO conquered the Incas in the 1530s.
- The justifcation for conquest: acquire lands for resources and wealth, attain fame and glory, use the natives for labor, and spread the Christian faith.
- JACQUES CARTIER explored the North American continent and St. Lawrence River. The French continued exploring through Canada, the Great Lakes region, and down the Mississippi River settling New Orleans.
- Once the Dutch broke free from the bonds of Spain, they set their eyes on developing their successful merchant and commercial society through exploration and colonization. They attempted to disrupt the success of the Spanish and English.
- The DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY managed the colonies in Southeast Asia and East Asia.
- The Dutch also explored and colonized in North America.
- The English began exploration efforts long after the Portuguese and Spanish. They ventured into parts of North America, running into the French and the Dutch. They also wanted to rival the Spanish Empire.
- Most North American English colonies were established on the east coast. Most colonies were set up for economic reasons and a few were established for religious purposes.
- The English set expeditions to the Indian Ocean and made contacts and settlements in India, threatening the interests of the Dutch.
Spanish Empire
- The Spanish not only conquered the Americas and colonized for wealth and power, but also to spread the Catholic faith.
- They asserted direct royal control over the colonies. They established VICEROYALTIES (New Spain, Peru, New Granada, and La Plata) governed by a VICEROY who answered only to the monarch.
- The Spanish monarch controlled all aspects of the colonial empire, including acquiring a significant portion of the wealth generated from the colonies.
- Missionaries were sent to convert the native population to Catholicism. If a native did not convert, death was usually the solution by the Spanish.
- Spanish administration of the colonies was often brutal and extreme. There was little chance of self-rule in the Spanish colonies.
- The SPANISH CASTE SYSTEM: PENINSULARES (European-born colonists) held high-ranking positions and controlled most of the wealth. CREOLES/CRIOLLOS (American-born of European descent) owned plantations and helped enforce Spanish rule. MESTIZOS (European/Native mix) and MULATTOS (Native/African mix) were given special privileges. NATIVES were enslaved at first, but eventually became a protected class through the efforts of BARTOLOME DE LAS CASAS, a Catholic priest who protested the cruelty of Spaniards on natives. AFRICANS were slaves and treated very harshly and possessed little to no rights as they were considered property. Based primarily on race.
- ENCOMIENDA SYSTEM: The monarch provided an upper-class citizen rights to land for cultivation. Any residents were to be enslaved to work the land without question or protest. It was a brutal system on the natives and many died as a result.
- MITA: Established in Peru by the Spanish, the mita system required natives to labor on government projects, such as silver mines.
- The Spanish practiced PLANTATION MONOCULTURE. It allowed for plantations to use the large amount of land to grow a single crop, usually a cash crop like sugar. The effects of plantation monoculture are environmental damage, increased slave labor, and prevent a diverse economy.
English Colony
- To establish an English colony there were two requirements: investment and royal permission.
- Investment came from the use of JOINT-STOCK COMPANIES. A potential settlement needed investors to fund the expedition and colony. If a colony was successful, the investors would be paid handsomely. If a colony failed, one could fall into debt to their investors.
- Royal permission came through the granting of a CHARTER. The English monarch granted authorization of the settlement and provided protection as long as the colony served the interests of the English Empire.
- Through the use of joint-stock companies and charters, English colonies developed a concept of self-rule. There was no direct royal control by the king.
- Most colonies established their own form of governments and society. They usually followed the English model of a representative and constitutional government. The HOUSE OF BURGESSES in Virginia and the MAYFLOWER COMPACT in Massachusetts are examples.
- INDENTURED SERVITUDE allowed for poor colonists to work for a period of seven years. It allowed many English citizens to escape their debt and criminal records.
- In the North American colonies, a few were established on religious purposes. The PILGRIMS and PURITANS escaped religious persuction to settle in Massachusetts. Rhode Island and Connecticut were formed to escape religious persecution in Massachusetts. Maryland was founded as a safe haven for Catholics. Pennsylvania settled the passive Quakers. The rest of the colonies were established for economic reasons, including Virginia and the Carolinas.
- The northern American colonies developed a commercial economy whereas the southern colonies established plantation economies, especially to grow tobacco.
- Many native populations in the Americas were forced off their lands and treated very harshly. Their conquest came easy when Europeans used cavalry and gunpowder technology to overpower the natives.
- In the early colonial years, natives were enslaved but could not handle the rigors of plantation and mining labor. Thousands died as a result.
- BARTOLOME DE LAS CASAS, in his Tears of the Indians, helped reduce native atrocities by the Spanish.
- However, millions of natives perished due to the introduction of Eurasian diseases. SMALLPOX and MALARIA killed off nearly half of the native population in the Americas. Natives had no immunity.
- The COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE was a transfer of people, goods, animals, plants, diseases, and ideas between Eurasia and the Americas.
- From Europe: sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, horses, coffee, cotton, wheat, olives, grapes, measles, smallpox.
- From Americas: corn/maize, potatoes, manioc, peppers, beans, tomatoes, tobacco, cacao/chocolate, syphillis. SUGAR production increased in the Americans significantly.
- Effect for Europe: increased wealth leading to urbanization, luxurious lifestyles, stronger monarchies, inflation, rise in merchant class/middle class, early forms of capitalism; increased food supply leading to increased population.
- Effect for Americas: decreased native population due to diseases; better lifestyle with adaptation of horse and cattle; environmental damage from plantations

- Europeans took advantage of the slave trade in Africa and Indian Ocean made propserous by Arab traders. With the colonies in the Americas, European demand for slaves increased dramatically.
- Africans became the ideal slave due to the inability of the American natives to adapt to the harsh labor of the mines and plantations. Africans possessed immunities to most Eurasian diseases. The Spanish outlawed native enslavement and sought African slaves.
- Slavery became an essential part of the American economy and society.
- In the 1400s and 1500s hundreds of thousands of Africans were taken to the Americas as slaves. In the 1600s and 1700s it reached into the millions. Many slaves were taken to Brazil and South America. Others went to the Caribbean. A few made it to the southern English colonies in North America.
Trinagular Trade
- The Atlantic Ocean evolved into a trade network between Europe, Africa, and the Americas known as the TRINAGULAR TRADE.
- From Europe to Africa: manufactured goods (metals, firearms, alcohol, textiles).
- From Africa to Europe: gold, ivory, timber
- From Africa to the Americas (MIDDLE PASSAGE): slaves.
- From Americas to Europe: raw materials (tobacco, sugar, cotton, silver).

EUROPE (1450-1750)
Problems of the Roman Catholic Church
- The GREAT SCHISM (Papal Schism) (1378-1417 CE) divided the Church based on political motives rather than theological. One Pope in Avignon and one in Rome.
- Excessive and extravagant papal authority. Immense land ownership. Corruption among the clergy. The sale of INDULGENCES.
- The failure of the Crusades.
- The Bubonic Plague made most believe the Church/God abandoned them.
- The nefarious Inquisition and witchcraft trials.
- The strengthening of monarchs.
- The Church's popularity suffered, but was still a significant and intimidating force in European society.
- Humanists, like Erasmus, began to question the secularization of the Church and believed the Church lost its spiritual responsibility.
- Increased education through the printing press allowed people to interpret the Bible on their own and begin to question Church authority and practices.
Protestant Reformation
- MARTIN LUTHER, a German monk, questioned papal corruption. In his NINETY-FIVE THESES, Luther attacked the sale of indulgences and Church abuses.
- Luther preached SALVATION THROUGH FAITH ALONE. Less veneration of saints and Mary. Cease extravagant rituals and sacraments. Priests could marry. Self-interpret the Bible.
- Luther's efforts led to LUTHERANISM, which gained many followers in the northern Germanic states in the Holy Roman Empire.
- JOHN CALVIN preached PREDESTINATION (one's destiny to heaven or hell was already determined by birth). By living a pure life through simplicity, strict lifestyle, and hard work, one proved their destiny. CALVINISM.
- Calvinists became popular in Switzerland, Scotland, and the Dutch Republic. French Calvinists (HUGUENOTS) suffered in predominantly Catholic France.
- The ANGLICAN CHURCH/CHURCH OF ENGLAND was established to permit HENRY VIII a divorce in order to secure a male heir. The Anglican Church was more political than theological, but contributed to the conflict between Protestants and Catholics.
Catholic Reformation aka Counter-Reformation
- COUNCIL OF TRENT (1545-1563 CE) sought to: 1. end sale of indulgences, 2. end corruption of the clergy, 3. reaffirm the Pope's and Church's authority, 4. increase the Inquisition's powers, 5. create INDEX OF FORBIDDEN BOOKS, 6. establish the JESUITS (SOCIETY OF JESUS), led by IGNATIUS LOYOLA, to work as missionaries and be strong-arm of the Pope.
- The purpose was to enforce Catholicism in predominantly Catholic areas and keep Catholic adherents and prevent the spread of Protestantism.
- The reinvigoration of the Church led to the BAROQUE culture which emphasized religious aspects. Baroque art and music was dynamic.
Wars of Religion
- French Wars of Religion (1562-1598 CE) between Catholics and Huguenots. Ended with the EDICT OF NANTES recognizing the Huguenots per the efforts of HENRY OF NAVARRE, King of France.
- Catholic Spain. Under PHILIP II, Spain remained extremely Catholic and sought to enforce it in its territories. The Spanish attempted to quash the Dutch rebellion who had mostly converted to Calvinism. The Spanish also became entangled with Anglican England where Philip II sent the SPANISH ARMADA (1588 CE) against Elizabeth I. The failure of the Spanish Armada reasserted Elizabeth I's power and nearly bankrupted Spain.
- THIRTY YEARS' WAR: In the Holy Roman Empire the PEACE OF AUGSBURG (1555 CE) recognized Lutheranism, but not Calvinism. Rivalries between Lutherans, Calvinists, and Catholics led to war. The TREATY OF WESTPHALIA (1648 CE) granted more autonomy to Holy Roman Empire states and weakened the Holy Roman Empire. Lutherans dominated the northern states, Catholics in the southern states, and pockets of Calvinists.

- The feudal states of the Middle Ages were fading and evolving into NATION-STATES, complete with strong monarchs, a homogenous population, and national unity. They were more centralized as kings consolidated their power from a weakened nobility which had been depleted due to wars and epidemics.
- European monarchies were establishing more bureaucracies to handle finances, military, domestic and foreign policies, etc.
- The nation-states also established STANDING ARMIES which recruited soldiers for long military service and erased the feudal contractual relationship of defense.
- The increasing wealth from colonization provided monarchs enough revenue to stabilize the kingdom and dissolve feudal economics.
Absolutism and Divine Right
- ABSOLUTE MONARCHS held total and absolute power. They were unquestioned and free to pursue any needs and wants. They controlled all aspects of government.
- The justification for absolutism was DIVINE RIGHT. Absolute monarchs believed God placed them on the throne and they only answered to God. Questioning the king meant questioning God which was deemed heretical.
Habsburg Dynasty
- CHARLES V controlled the Austrian Empire, the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, southern Italy, the Low Countries, and the Spanish Americas.
- Philip II of Spain enforced Catholicism and Spain was the most powerful European nation during the 1500s.
- Absolute control was reinforced when the Austrian Empire halted the Ottoman Empire in Vienna and the Habsburgs wanted to ensure security and stability.

France and the Bourbon Dynasty
- LOUIS XIV (Sun King) (1661-1715 CE) ruled as a prime example of an absolute monarch. He centralized France's government. He kept the nobility in check with the building of the PALACE OF VERSAILLES. He led an extravagant lifestyle to promote his absolute image. He executed France's wars of expansion. He persecuted the Huguenots and promoted Catholicism.
Prussia and the Hohenzollern Dynasty
- FREDERICK THE GREAT (1740-1786 CE) enhanced the Prussian army and expanded Prussia. He limited freedoms and ruled with an iron fist.
Russia and the Romanov Dynasty
- After the defeat of the Mongols, Russia established an absolute monarchy under the rule of the CZAR.
- PETER THE GREAT centralized his power greatly and expanded Russia's lands in Eastern Europe and Asia.
- He also began rapid WESTERNIZATION of Russia. He believed the European society was the model society. In order for Russia to be recognized by Europe it must look like Europe. He forced the nobility to dress in the western style, shave their beards, and learn French. He moved the capital to the coastal city of St. Petersburg for easier access to the sea and Western Europe.
- Unfortunately, SERFDOM continued in Russia and it remained a predominantly agrarian society. The peasants were not forced to westernize.
- CATHERINE THE GREAT furthered expanded Russia into the Black Sea and into Siberia. Promoted Enlightenment ideas in Russia.
England and Parliamentary Government
- Parliamentary monarchies were LIMITED MONARCHIES because the king had to rule alongside a legislative body usually made up of the nobility and eventually commoners through election. England was a primary example.
- England/Great Britain limited its monarch by PARLIAMENT. It was made up of two houses: HOUSE OF LORDS (nobility, clergy) and the HOUSE OF COMMONS (wealthy, high-class commoners, middle-class).
- After the English Civil War (1640-1649 CE), England wasunder the rule of the dictator OLIVER CROMWELL. After his death, England returned to an absolute monarchy which was very unpopular. The GLORIOUS REVOLUTION (1688 CE) saw Parliament regain control of the government in a blood-less coup and established a limited monarchy in England.
- England established the ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS.
- In England, there was toleration, intellectual development, a sense of openness, a more fluid society, more urbanization, and free enterprise.

- The reintroduction of Classical knowledge and the availability of literature due to the priniting press spearheaded an intellectual movement in Europe.
- Scientists and scholars began to question the theories of the old world. The GEOCENTRIC THEORY (Earth as center of the universe), developed by the Greeks and widely accepted by the Catholic Church, was challeneged by COPERNICUS'S HELIOCENTRIC THEORY (sun as center of the universe).
- Church doctrine was widely criticized as more and more secular knowledge creeped into society during the 1400s, 1500s, and 1600s.
Scientific Revolution (1600s-1700s)
- The SCIENTIFIC METHOD was introduced among scholars to explain natural and physical occurences through logic and reason.
- Scientific theories and discoveries were made, such as the Laws of Matter, law of gravitation, and laws of physics. ISAAC NEWTON discovered the laws of motion, gravitational theories, and calculus.
- New sciences were proved through mathematics and backed up by logical deduction rather than explained by a priest interpreting from the Bible.
- England welcomed the new ideas whereas predominantly Catholic nations scoffed at the discoveries of GALILEO who was forced to recant his theories.
Age of Reason/Age of Enlightenment (1700s)
- Philosophers began applying the scientific-based laws of the physical world to human nature.
- The inspirations were JOHN LOCKE and THOMAS HOBBES.
- Locke believed humans were born with a TABULA RASA (blank slate) and learned through experience. His TREATISIES ON GOVERNMENT laid the foundation of the SOCIAL CONTRACT: people possessed the power; government was given the power by the CONSENT of the people; the government used the power in any means as long as people were guaranteed their natural rights of LIFE, LIBERTY, and PROPERTY; if the government failed to ensure natural rights, the people had the right to overthrow the government and install a new one.
- Thomas Hobbes believed humankind was a selfish and vicious race in need of control. His LEVIATHAN outlined his call for an absolute ruler to rule by any means in order to ensure stability and security.
- French philosophers, known as PHILOSOPHES, applied natural law to develop the concept of NATURAL RIGHTS. Natural rights could not be taken away or denied as they were as concrete as the laws of physics.
- MONTESQUIEU developed the SEPARATION OF POWERS or THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT including a LEGISLATURE (make the law), EXECUTIVE (enforce the law), and JUDICIAL (interpret the law). His CHECKS AND BALANCES prevented the abuse of power by one or more of the branches by granting each branch unique responsibilities.
- VOLTAIRE was a critic of the abuses by oppressive regimes and the Catholic Church. He emphasized INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS and the freedom of expression. He promoted the questioning of authority based on reason.
- ROUSSEAU's social contract promoted the GENERAL WELFARE of society. The government and society should adhere to the majority of the population. The general welfare would be determined by the use of voting.
- MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT believed natural rights belonged to women as well and that they were capable of reason and equality.
- Upper-class women played an important role in promoting the Enlightenment. They hosted SOIRES inviting philosophes to discuss and develop Enlightened ideas.
- Philosophes tended to question Europe's social structure. The nobility owned significant wealth and influence yet only by birth. They questionied heredity as a means to determine a leader; an inept monarch as ruler based on birthright was unreasonable and illogical. Some questioned the Church and its abuses and fanaticism.
- DEISM developed as a belief system based on reason. An omnipotent deity who created the universe and set everything in motion and walked away (the watchmaker). The deity did not meddle in human and natural affairs unlike the God of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

- During the 1500s and 1600s the population of Europe experienced stagnation and decline due to the LITTLE ICE AGE where average temperatures lowered dramatically. This affected harvests and led to famines. Wars contributed to starvation and spread of disease.
- The 1700s experienced a sharp population increase. The Columbian Exchange provided more nutritional options to grain, such as the potato and corn. The AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION transformed farming techniques such as the use of iron plows, crop rotation, and fertilization.
- Due to the increased trade, education, and wealth in Europe, the MIDDLE CLASS began to climb. More and more people were becoming merchants, artisans, business owners, bankers, and professionals. There was increased urbanization.
- European women gained considerable privileges, but still remained unequal to men.
- Upper class and middle class women became more educated and participated more in the business world.
- All women gained rights to choose marriage, divorce, childbirth, and inheritance.
- Christianity maintained the subjugation and limitation of women. This was justification for the witch trials which targeted mostly women.
- MERCANTILISM: strict government control of economy and markets; favorable balance of trade (export more than import); gold and silver; all for the MOTHER COUNTRY; exploit colonies for raw materials
- CAPITALISM: economic theory based on free markets, free enterprise; ADAM SMITH and WEALTH OF NATIONS; based on the concept of LAISSEZ-FAIRE (let it be); profit; competition; supply and demand
- Increased wealth and business due to international trade as a result of exploration and colonization. Europe's domination and influence on the world begins.

- A "gunpowder empire" was a foreign people who gained access to gunpowder/firearm technology and applied its use to expand its borders, conquer foreign states, and control their new empires. The Islamic empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals were examples of gunpowder empires.

- Under Osman I, the Ottoman Turks arose from Anatolia and began to conquer the Middle East, Southeastern Europe, and North Africa in the 1300s and 1400s.
- The Ottoman Empire proved its worth with the CAPTURE OF CONSTANTINPOLE in 1453 CE. It ended the Byzantine Empire and prevented European trade with the East. The Ottomans had a foothold on the eastern Mediterranean Sea.
- SULEIMAN THE MAGNIFICENT ruled at the height of the Ottoman Empire. He reached as far as Vienna, Austria where the Ottomans were stopped in their European expansion.
- Corrupt sultans, technological stagnation, economic crises, foreign wars, and internal conflicts led to the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 1700s and 1800s.
- The Ottoman centralized power under the rule of the SULTAN. His political leadership rested in the hands of the GRAND VIZIER who helped control the bureaucracy.
- Regional powers were given to PASHAS (governors) who answered to the sultan, but possessed regional autonomy.
- The position of sultan was based on heredity. If a sultan had more than one son, the brothers would fight for power. This proved the new sultan would be a powerful and skillful leader. It also tended to destabilize the empire for a brief period.
- The JANISARRIES were the elite soldiers of the Ottoman military. A janissary were Christians who were recruited into the unit. He was converted to Islam and taught to be extremely loyal to the sultan. As a result the janissaries became a powerful force in the Ottoman Empire and would enjoy many political and social privileges.
- The Ottoman Empire ruled over a very diverse area. It included Muslims, Christians, Jews, Persians, Turks, Arabs, Greeks, Romanians, Bulgarians, Africans, etc.
- The Ottomans were exceptionally tolerat of religion. There was no forced conversion to Islam. Non-Muslims, however, paid a special head tax, could not join the military, and were not considered equal under the law.
- Religious communities were placed in MILLETS (nations). This was an administrative unit based on religion, such as Muslim, Christian, and Jewish.
- HAREMS (sacred place) was a social network closely linked to the sultan. Concubines served the pleasures of the sultan, but also provided cultural services. Eunuchs were castrated male slaves who participated in administrative affairs.
- The early Ottoman period experienced great cultural and technological development. Architecture was the highlight of Ottoman culture. SINAN was a famous architect who designed 81 mosques. Ottoman rug designs were very intricate and detailed and highly valued throughout the empire and Europe.
- Unfortunately, the later years of the Ottomans resulted in technological and cultural stagnation.
- The queen mother was the mother to the heir to the throne and held significant influence in the raising of the child. She participated in administrative duties and controlled the household and held rank over the concubines.
- Women were secluded and veiled in public and mostly limited to domestic duties. Women could own property and testify in court.

- In 1501 CE, a young man proclaimed himself SHAH amd established the Safavid Empire. Through the use of advanced military technology, the Safavid Empire quickly expanded from Persia and into the Middle East.
- The Safavid Empire converted to a Shiite-based Muslim empire, unlike the Sunni-based Ottoman Empire. This would lead to an increase in hostilities between the regional powers and last for centuries.
- The Safavid Empire enjoyed prosperity through its trade networks and commercial developments.
- Internal conflict, weak rulers, and technological stagnation led to the decline of the Safavids.

- The Mongol warrior, BABUR, conquered the Delhi Sultanate and established the Muslim-based Mughal Empire in India.
- The Mughals used their advanced military technology to expand from northern India into the southern portion of the peninsula.
- AKBAR THE GREAT (1556-1605 CE) reigned during the height of the Mughal Empire. He ruled fairly and centralized his authority as continued the expansion of the empire. He pursued religious toleration by promoting peace among Muslims, Hindus, and Buddhists. He abolished unfair religious taxes, allowed for proportionate numbers of non-Muslims in government, and married a Hindu princess.
- Unfortunately, Mughal toleration ended with the rise of AURANGZEB (1658-1707 CE). He taxed non-Muslims and forced them to convert to Islam. His efforts seriously affected society and the economy. The Sikhs became a militant group and established a state in Punjab as a result of Aurangzeb's intolerance and violence.
- The latter years of the Mughal Empire experienced cultural decline and corruption by weak and greedy sultans.
- Indian women earned more opportunities and privileges under the muslim Mughals. They could own secure employment, run businesses, own property, receive an education, and express their cultural talents.
- However, women rights were limited by Islamic and Hindu culture. Women were secluded from the public. The sati continued. Patriarchy was reinforced.
Economy and Culture
- The Mughals thrived from trade networks and a booming cotton industry.
- Mughal culture combined Muslim, Persian, and Hindu aspects. The TAJ MAHAL is one example of architectural brilliance.
- Like the Ottomans and Safavids, the Mughals experienced cultural and technological decline in its later years.
European Influence
- European explorers and colonists began arriving on the Indian coasts in the late 1400s and increased in the following centuries.
- The Europeans were limited by the powerful Mughals, but over time the British and French pushed deeper into India due to their technological innovations while the Mughals lagged behind.
- The BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY started to expanded and exploit parts of India. During the late 1700s, after brief skirmishes with the French, the British virtually took over India and made the Mughals puppet rulers. The British East India Company was practically ruling India.

Ming Empire
- The Ming had become a powerful empire in China through centralized government and economic prosperity.
- The Ming experienced a golden age in culture. Ming culture would come to define Chinese culture in world history. PORCELAIN was extremely valued during the Ming Dynasty.
- The Ming decided to take advantage of the Indian Ocean trade network and re-establish its presence in the region.
- The Ming constructed a massive fleet of junks under the guide of ZHENG HE. A master sailor and navigator, he sailed through the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean to show off the Ming's power.

- The Ming made China too powerful for arriving Europeans to conquer or even threaten. But trade relationships began, but were slow due to little demand from the Chinese for European goods.
- Unfortunately, the Ming did not continue expansion and immediately closed its doors and burned its fleets. The European influence and trading destabilized the economy with a huge influx of silver.
- The population skyrocketed and there was insufficient resources to feed the growing number of people.
- Decentralization of the government and civil war broke out. Foreign neighbors were threatening Ming borders.
- A peasant revolt seriously weakened the Ming and they were eventually captured by the neighboring MANCHU.
Qing Empire
- The MANCHU captured the capital of Beijing and established the QING DYNASTY.
- The Manchu quickly expanded throughout China and made some Southeast Asian kingdoms tributaries.
- Qing society was stratified based on ethnicity. The Qing/Manchu were the ruling class. Native Chinese were a subject class and forced to wear certain clothing and tie their hair into QUEUES to be identified.
- The CANTON SYSTEM dominated the economy under the Qing. It regulated trade and commerce under government control. It also limited imports and regulated trade with foreigners. Foreign trade was limited to the port city of Canton. The Chinese exported silk, porcelain and tea.
- The Qing believed in racial superiority and regarded the Europeans as barbarians. Christianity was banned and interaction with foreigners was strictly limited, especially among the native Chinese.
- KANGXI (1662-1722 CE) centralized China's government and promoted Confucianism. He also kept an eye on the growing influence of the Europeans.
- QIANLONG (1735-1796 CE) promoted Chinese culture and trade.
- The population continued to grow rapidly and resources were insufficient to feed the people. Poverty increased.
- Technology and culture began to lapse and the Europeans began to take advantage of the weakening Qing in the late 1700s.

- Japan was dominated by the daimyo. The weakening of the shogun led to civil war. Europeans took advantage and introduced Christianity and gunpowder technology.
- The THREE GREAT UNIFIERS: Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and TOKUGAWA IEYASU helped reunify Japan and establish a strong shogunate.
Tokugawa Shogunate
- Japan's government became highly centralized under the Tokugawa Shogunate.
- The capital was moved to Edo (Tokyo).
- The shogun held most power and the emperor remained as a figurehead.
- Loyal daimyo were given the best farm lands and enemy daimyo were given poor or distant farm lands. The daimyo were kept in check by the HOSTAGE SYSTEM as daimyo families were held in the capital and daimyo were required to make annual visits to the shogun.
- The shogun held a monopoly on gunpowder technology and limited its use.
- Japan pursued isolationism and limited European influence. Sometimes Christians and Europeans were persecuted.
- Rice production increased and trade networks were developed.
- Transportation, such as roads and canals, improved and there was massive urbanization.
- Japan's society became very rigid and highly stratified. Promotion of Confucianism enforced this.
- The merchant class increased in wealth and power and began to climb the social ladder.
- The samurai weakened, but enjoyed their presitge among the population. Since there was peace, the need for samurai dwindled and some became part of the rising merchant class or resorted to banditry.
- Women became extremely restricted in society.
- Disobedience could result in death.
- Little to no authority over property or marriage.
- Could pursue cultural occupations.
- Lower class women worked virtually equally among men on the farms.
- GEISHAS became popular for their social and cultural skills among the upper class.
- The samurai class was becoming the last bastion of traditional Japanese culture.
- KABUKI THEATER was enjoyed by the upper class. It emphasized urban life, use of swords, and acrobatics.

- The Southeast Asian region saw political stability and rise of centralized nations. The Kingdom of Thailand (Siam), Annam (Vietnam), and Burma are examples.
- Despite the rise of the nation states, they were eventually reduced as puppet states by foreign powers. The Qing Empire made Annam and Burma tributaries. The Europeans infiltrated the region, i.e. the Dutch in Indonesia, though they never totally conquered the states.
- Buddhism and Hinduism still retained their presence. Islam dominated Indonesia. Christianity was now being introduced on a limited basis due to the European arrivals.

- The British, under JAMES COOK, arrived in the Oceanic region and established colonies. Punished British citizens were sent to the region.
- The Europeans established farms, but also displaced the ABORIGINES leading to conflict between the two peoples for centuries.

Songhai Empire
- SUNNI ALI broke free from the Mali Empire and established the Songhai Empire in western Africa.
- ASKIA MOHAMMED expanded the Songhai Empire and centralized the government. He promoted culture and trade. He expanded the gold-salt trade network and the middle class rose significantly.
- Timbuktu was captured by the Songhai, but still acted as an important trade and cultural center.
- Islam was heavily reinforced under the Songhai. This would lead to a decrease in rights for women and a more patriarchal society. The matrilineal system would continue in West Africa.
European Influence
- Trade thrived in West Africa, due to gold, salt, palm oil, and slavery.
- The expanding Europeans began to capture and settle coastal forts and ports to take advantage of the trade networks in the Niger River region. They also wanted to expand the slave market.

- The Kongo Kingdom developed as a trade-based state. They traded ivory, pottery, cloth, and metal.
- The Portuguese forced Kongo into a trade relationship by taking hostages.
- As a result of Portuguese influence, Kongo began conversions to Christianity and adopted European names. The Kongo became a powerful African kingodom through expansion and centralizing authority. They used Portuguese mercenaries and advanced military technology to conquer neighboring states.
- As a result of the Kongo's conquest, this provided a substantial slave market as prisoners of war were traded to the Europeans and sent to the Americas.

- The region thrived from its participation in the Indian Ocean trade system, but the European arrived in order to take advantage.
- The Portuguese captured key ports, but did not conquer or colonize the region due to Ottoman and Arab presence.
- The slave market increased dramatically due to European and Ottoman demand for slaves.

- Dutch explorers and colonists, aka the BOERS, settled as farmers and traders in the region.
- The Boers would evolve into the AFRIKAANERS and subjugate native Africans based on racial superiority and technological advantage.