1750 CE - 1914 CE

- inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment Age
- revolutionaries took advantage of the confusion and conflict among Europeans
- most revolutions spearheaded by the educated but underprivileged middle class
- reaction to centuries of unfair social and political distinctions of the "Old Order"
- each revolution fueled subsequent revolutions

American Revolution (1775-1800 CE)
- French and Indian War ended with Britain acquiring new frontier lands west of the Appalachians, but also acquiring a substantial war debt
- Proclamation of 1763 (preventing colonists from expanding into western lands), new taxes (Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Tea Act, Intolerable Acts, etc.), and extreme circumstances (Boston Massacre, publishing of Common Sense, Boston Tea Party, Quartering Act, etc.) led to violent reactions and threats of independence by American colonists.
- Battle of Saratoga turned tide of war in favor of Americans with French and Spanish joining forces against the British.
- Declaration of Independence and U.S. Constitution inspired by John Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Voltaire, etc. established first republic in the Americas based on a system of federalism and individual rights.
- Most Founders based out of educated middle class.
- Unfortunately, slavery existed and women denied rights.
- Peaceful transition of power between rival political parties and leaders (Election of 1800) prove the success of the American Revolution.
- WHY WAS IT SUCCESSFUL? Experienced in virtues of government due to history of English legal tradition (Magna Carta, Glorious Revolution, English Bill of Rights, Parliament). Development of unique "American" way of life since Britain promoted joint-stock companies, distance across the Atlantic, Britain's domestic and foreign struggles throughout 17th and 18th centuries, and no direct rule over colonies.

French Revolution (1789-1815 CE)
- Ancien Regime/Old Order: Absolute monarchy, predominantly Catholic; FIRST ESTATE (clergy) 1% of the population and 10% of land ownership, SECOND ESTATE (nobility) 2% of the population and 25% of land ownership, THIRD ESTATE (everyone else) 97% of population and 65% of land ownership; Third Estate paid 100% of taxes. EACH ESTATE OWNED ONE VOTE EACH thus First and Second Estates outvoted Third Estate especially concerning policies which would undermine their status.
- Crisis in France: financial debt due to expansion wars and extravagance of monarchies, French and Indian War, support of American Revolution; harsh winters brought about famine and peasant revolts for bread; Enlightenment ideas inspire educated middle class for reform.
- Estates-General called to fight crisis, but Third Estate shut out due to increasing protests. Third Estate declare Tennis Court Oath to not disband until there is a constitution and become NATIONAL ASSEMBLY.
- Most of National Assembly originate from educated middle class.
- DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND CITIZEN outlines individual rights of French citizens...unfortunately women not recognized and slavery still exists.
- Storming of the Bastille and increasing influence of National Assembly force monarchy to acknowledge CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY, limiting powers of the king.

- FACTIONS: conservatives = monarchists, moderates = Girondists (though lean toward radicalism), radicals = Jacobins
- Britain, Austria, and Prussia invade France. WHY? Prevent revolution from spreading into their empires, safeguard the Old Order within France and Europe, take advantage of France's weakness, and avenge death of French king and queen.
- France establishes the REPUBLIC and transforms France away from the Old Order; nobility and clergy stripped of status and lands, monarchy removed, secular government and society established.
- Crisis increases due to domestic instability and foreign wars. Committee of Public Safety led by ROBESPIERRE seeks out enemies of the Republic. Beginning with conservatives (monarchists, clergy, nobility) and then anyone who disagrees.
- Robespierre finally brought down and establishment of Directory, but proves inefficient.
- RISE OF NAPOLEON: Successful military leader who stabilizes France.
- Concordat of 1801 strikes deal with the Church. NAPOLEONIC CODE ensures RULE OF LAW and PROPERTY RIGHTS, but limits freedom of expression.

- Napoleon declares himself EMPEROR and begins wars of European conquest. Successful in early years, but guerilla warfare in Spain and disastrous Russian campaign weakens his Grand Army. Alliance of Britain, Prussia, Austria, and Russia finally end Napoleon's reign in 1815 at Battle of Waterloo.
- CONGRESS OF VIENNA: Purpose: restore French monarchy; re-establish and strengthen CONSERVATISM/Old Order throughout Europe; prevent LIBERAL revolutions and preserve balance of power BY ANY MEANS NECESSARY.
- WHY FR. REV. NOT AS SUCCESSFUL? Liberal ideas against entrenched conservative order. France had no experience in representative type of government ala Britain.
- SOME SUCCESSFUL ASPECTS OF FR. REV.? Liberalism did not go away. Fueled 1848 revolutions and NATIONALISM.

Haitian Revolution (1789-1804 CE)
- San Domingue was France's most prosperous American colony which France directly ruled. Plantation society and economy depended on slavery.
- Weakened French control due to Revolution, inspiration of American Revolution, and gens de coloeur returning from France with Enlightenment ideas led to uprisings and a massive slave revolt.
- TOUSSAINT L'OVERTURE, former slave, leads slave rebellion and captures San Domingue colony.
- Haiti declared independent resulting in first successful slave revolt in the Americas and second independent nation in the Americas.
- WHY NOT SUCCESSFUL? Rebellion led by slaves with little to no education and no experience in running a representative government due to centuries of direct rule. Abolishment of slavery ended profit of plantation economy. Corruption and instability plagued Haiti for years.

- Population increase
- Agricultural Revolution - crops from Americas (Columbian Exchange) and ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT
- Increase in trade
- Innovation/inventions
- open to new ideas
- fluid society
- private investment
- abundant in raw materials
- control of trade routes throughout the globe
- mass production and division of labor
- mechanization (using machines)
- iron development
- transportation development - steam engine, railroads
- communication development - telegraph, telephone
- raw materials
- labor force (leads to the WORKING CLASS)
- money-based economy/INVESTMENT (leads to CAPITALISM)
- new technologies/innovation
- Urbanization: massive growth of cities; disease rampant; wealthy lived in extravagance while poor lived in slums; poor sanitation facilities
- Rural environments reduced but not as isolated
- Working conditions: skilled workers and entrepreneurs found opportunities but were in the minority; unskilled and most artisans could only secure low-paying and dangerous jobs
- Society: middle class increases, develop a moral code; peasant class evolves into a working class, drift into vices to escape harsh reality of industrialization
- Women: middle class women regulated to the home/domestic issues, working-class women forced to work in factories to save family; unequal pay
- Children: early period saw abuse of children which led to child labor laws.

- Immigrants: sought opportunities by escaping political instability or slow development in home country; huge immigration to United States; met with increasing hostility in new country since they were cheap labor; countries attempted assimilation, but some cultures retained in new nations.
- Slavery: Early 19th century saw end to Atlantic slave trade, but continued since increased demand needed increased labor. Industrialization proved slavery as not economically viable and increased moral code among middle class led abolition movements. Freed slaves met with hostility for fear of taking jobs at cheaper wages.
- The New Economy: CAPITALISM; LAISSEZ-FAIRE; Adam Smith and the Wealth of Nations; free enterprise, profit, private ownership, no government regulation (mercantilism)
- SOCIALISM: government ownership of industries in order to protect from exploitation of workers; public ownership; profit-sharing; community; ideology led to LABOR UNIONS and REFORMS
- COMMUNISM: Karl Marx and Frederick Engels and their Communist Manifesto; revolution by working class to destroy capitalism and institute egalitarian society and sharing of means of production. "WORKERS OF THE WORLD, UNITE!"
- Pollution of the environment through burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and poor industrial waste management
- Innovation in sciences and chemicals
- Iron works evolved into steel
- Electricity and petroleum discovered as new sources of energy
- Improvements in biological sciences led to new medicines and new resistance to diseases
- Social sciences improved: psychology, sociology; understanding of human behavior
- Theory of Evolution by Charles Darwin leads to SOCIAL DARWINISM whereby "natural selection" and "survival of the fittest" applied to society; industrial societies viewed as superior to developing and non-industrialized areas; racist ideologies increase.
- Reaction to the ideas of the Age of Reason/Enlightenment
- Promoted emotion, feelings, imagination, and dreams over reason and rationalization. Beauty of nature.
- Poetry, music, and art reflected nationalism, the chaos wrought from the Enlightenment, and the destruction and suffering wrought from the Industrial Revolution.
- Concerned with the REALISTIC portrayal of society; how life actually is.

- Great Britain becomes a dominant world power through industrialization and modernization. Most of Western Europe follows suit in France, Netherlands, Belgium, Austria-Hungary, and Prussia.
- Western Europe begins to seek out territories and take advantage of non-industrialized sectors to keep fueling their industrialization and power.
- Italian Unification. Through Italian nationalism, Italy established through the conservative efforts of Cavour and the radical efforts of Garibaldi.
- German Unification (1871). After centuries of political fragmentation, Bismarck's Prussia unites German lands into a solid nation through diplomacy and war. "Blood and iron" is the new German motto promoting sacrifice and modernization for a stronger Germany.
- Russia's development is slow due to predominantly agrarian society, strict conservative order, serfdom, ineffective rulers, increasing socialist population.
- Serfdom finally abolished in 1861.
- Expansion of Russia seen with mixed results. Disastrous campaigns in the Crimean War (expansion in Black Sea) and Russo-Japanese War (expansion in Pacific).
- Russification: attempt to strengthen Russian nationalism and culture across the nation. Force natives and conquered peoples to learn Russian and convert to Orthodox Christianity.
- Rise in anti-Semitism.
United States
- U.S. follows in the footsteps of Great Britain. Acquisition of lands through war (ex. Mexican-American War) and Manifest Destiny (ex. Louisiana Purchase) yield abundant raw materials.
- Promoted capitalistic society.
- Civil War due to REGIONALISM/SECTIONALISM ended in continued Union and abolishment of slavery.
- Joined imperial powers through defeat of Spain in Spanish-American War in 1898, acquiring Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines.
- Tokugawa Shogunate promoted closed-door policy.
- Arrival of American battle fleet under Commodore Perry in 1853 forces Shogun to make concessions.
- Weakening of Japan's position leads to civil war and the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
- MEIJI RESTORATION: Emperor restored; sought westernization and molded into a Japanese form; representative government under leadership of the Emperor; began to industrialize and modernize
- Aristocracy and daimyo limited or abolished.
- Women given more privileges.
- Western style and custom became embedded in Japanese culture.
- Expansionist policies fueled by need for raw materials.
- Proved its imperial worth with defeat of Russia in 1905 (Russo-Japanese War).
- Qing Dynasty weakened internally by peasant revolts, corrupt or inadequate leaders, and resentment of foreign rule by the Manchus.
- Population skyrocketed and food supply was limited.
- China was a market demanded by Europe, but China did not demand European goods. As China remained stagnant in development, Europe had industrialized and began to force China's hand.
- SPHERES OF INFLUENCE paved way for European nations to be granted exclusive rights and markets in China.

- Opium Wars (1839-1842, ): British traded opium from India into China leading to civil unrest among China's population due to drug effects. Qing government demanded British halt its opium trade. When Britain refused, China declared war and Britain easily destroyed the antiquated Chinese military.
- Result of the Opium Wars: Treaty of Nanking forced China to open up more coastal ports, lost Hong Kong to Britain, and Europeans began claiming EXTRATERRITORIALITY (Europeans subject to their own laws in China).
- TAI PING REBELLION (1850-1864): Peasant revolt led by Christian convert Hong Xiuquan. Sought destruction of Qing Dynasty, social reforms (gender equality, peasants acquiring lands), and end of European influence. Combined Qing and European force ended the rebellion.
- Qing Dynasty pressured to reform: modernization of the military and technologies, but retained traditional Chinese bureaucracy and Confucianist ideals.
- EMPRESS CI XI despised western reforms and promoted conservative order.
- OPEN DOOR POLICY spearheaded by U.S. and Britain to ease foreign restrictions in spheres of influence and prevent outiright colonization of China.
- BOXER REBELLION: Secret organization of Chinese conservatives began harassing Christian missionaries and Europeans. When word of slaughtering of Christians reached Europe, an alliance of German, British, American, French, Russian, and Japanese attacked China and restored order. The Imperial powers forced the Qing government to payback for all the trouble.
- Weakening Mughal Empire allowed British East India Company to influence military and political affairs in India.
- BEIC asserted strict control and disregarded Indian culture when establishing new policies or markets, leading to Indian resentment.
- SEPOY REBELLION/FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE (1857): Sepoys, hired as BEIC security force, rebelled against Europeans and slaughter resulted on both sides. It was a rare occurrence of Hindus and Muslims combining forces.
- Sepoy Rebellion resulted in Britain establishing direct rule over India as a colony and ending the reign of the Mughals and the BEIC.
- Benefits of British Rule: stability in a traditionally fragmented region; development of infrastructure and modernization; education for youths and upper elites; Indian cultural rejuvenation.
- Consequences of British Rule: Increase in poor Indians due to new industries; peasant unrest due to corrupted Indian officials and promotion of cash crops; Indians never given equal opportunities; defamation of Indian culture.
- INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (1885) sought better opportunities in government administration and proved India's growing nationalism and quest for independence.
Ottoman Empire
- "sick man of Europe"
- Corrupt sultans and stagnant development weakened the once-strong Ottoman Empire.
- Pashas and regional governors sought their own course while sultans fell into lavish palace living.
- Industrialization proved difficult due to the Ottoman Empire's agrarian society.
- Nationalist revolts broke out in the far-reaches of the Empire: Greek independence in 1820s
- Losses to the Europeans: France seized Algeria and Tunisia, Britain seized Egypt.
- Janissaries became significant class, but despised efforts to reform due to fear of losing strict Muslim culture. A Janissary rebellion ended when the sultan eliminated them all.
- TANZIMAT REFORMS: Ottoman Empire began to westernize in order to elevate its influence among the imperial powers. Lacked support due to Muslim culture. Secularization in government and western reforms met with resistance.
- YOUNG OTTOMANS attempted to fuel westernization and became increasingly popular.
- Unfortunately, as Europe industrialized and modernized, the Empire was slowly deteriorating and Europe took advantage politically and economically.
- MUHAMMAD ALI began efforts to modernize Egypt to prove its worth and possibly break free from Ottoman rule.
- Egypt exploded economically with its cotton industry after the defeat of the South in the U.S. Civil War.
- Egypt's attempts to modernize met with resistance by the British and proved too costly as they sought investment by Europeans. Egypt had to take a backseat when the Europeans demanded repayment.
- SUEZ CANAL was to provide wealth to Egypt. Designed by the French and built by Egyptian labor, Egypt had to relinquish control to the British since the British considered it a "lifeline to India."
- When revolts broke out against European influence, Egypt eventually became a British protectorate.
West Africa
- West Africa developed a strong slave trade market during 1450-1750 CE. However, the market declined with the abolishment of slavery in the Atlantic world.
- During the time of 1750-1914 CE, West Africa began to solidify Islam into the culture.
- With slavery illegal, new markets developed in West Africa, including palm oil. New opportunities came for West Africans, including slaves.
- However, Europeans began to intercede in the West African markets with their increasing demand for raw materials and commodities.
- Westernization began to transform West African culture from a matrilineal to a patrilineal society.
- Christianization became associated with westernization and was used to educate Africans at the same indoctrinating them to appreciate western culture.
- SOKOTO was indirectly ruled which allowed for some preservation of traditional African culture and Islam, but administrators favored European policies and preserved traditional elite-ruled class structure.
- Liberia was the only independent nation in the region. All other territories were colonized by Europeans.
East Africa
- The slave trade of West Africa moved to the eastern coast of Africa where it was not enforced as well as the Atlantic world.
- European influence in East Africa was limited to major coastal cities during 1450-1750 CE. However, Portuguese, German, British, and Italian colonists began to entrench themselves in the East African markets.
- East Africa's economy spread deeper into Africa during 1750-1914 CE to appease the European demand for goods.
- Ethiopia, by modernizing and determination, prevented the British and Italians from conquering them and retained their independence.
Central Africa
- Glory-hunting explorers, Christian missionaries, and European demand flooded Central Africa and with new technologies were able to counter the environment that for centuries kept outsiders from exploiting.
- David Livingstone and Henry Stanley explored the region and Stanley helped secure Belgium's imperial quest when it secured the Belgian Congo.
South Africa
- Original Dutch settlers evolved into the BOERS aka AFRIKAANERS but were forced north by the British and settled the Orange Free State and the Transvaal.
- Rivalries between the Zulus developed racial segregation between Boers/Afrikaaners and natives. Africans were placed in reservations akin to natives in the United States.
- CECIL RHODES discovers gold and DIAMOND sources and establishes Rhodesia.

- Rhodes believes in British expansion and attempts conquest of the Boer nations, but Britain forces his resignation, but it is too late.
- BOER WARS conclude with British victory after guerilla tactics by the Boers and detention camps by the British.
- Britain establishes Union of South Africa in 1910 and allows Afrikaaners to run the government and continue racial segregation.
Africa in General
- BERLIN CONFERENCE: Bismarck called European powers with African claims to ensure peaceful and diplomatic rule on the continent. The conference was held in 1885 and 1886 in Berlin and NO AFRICAN DELEGATES WERE PRESENTED OR INVITED. Europeans outlined a process of colonizing by laying territorial claim and enforcing it through administration and a military/police force. Borders were redrawn by Europeans and did not take into consideration African customs, traditions, and native borders.
- Britain tended to rule its African possessions through indirect rule or as protectorates, but France continued its colonial policy of direct rule and would assimilate natives. This process of assimilation was violently resisted and continued to plague France for decades.
- African Nationalism: Most Africans disliked western culture and found Europeans hypocrites with their Christian principles. Others welcomed westernization and would begin to use western ideals to fuel their nationalism. Democratic principles were infused among Africans as a way of combating racial segregation and subjugation.
Latin America in General
- Old Order of direct rule weakened due to crisis and turmoil in Europe and inspiration from American and Haitian Revolutions paved the way for Latin American independence movements.
- Creoles/criollos and JUNTAS (military leaders seeking political power) began to fight the rule of the peninsulares.
- New nations proved unstable given inexperience in establishing representative type of governments, inadequacy to sufficiently industrialize due to influence of imperial powers, inability to figure out the relationship with the Catholic Church, and corrupt leaders especially among the military.
- Regionalism prevented stability among newly independent nations.
- Military leaders tended to secure popular sentiment due to military successes and identifying with common folk. However, once they secured power they favored elite-class policies and in extreme cases led coup d'etats and established dictatorships.
- Despite winning political independence from the European powers, Latin American nations did not secure economic independence and were practically economic colonies of the imperial powers, especially the United States.
- MONROE DOCTRINE: United States guaranteed Latin American independence and prevent European re-colonization and intervention.
- PANAMA CANAL: United States instigates Panamanian independence from Columbia in order to build and control the Panama Canal linking the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
- Landed elites remained the dominant power while peasants remained in poverty.
- When Latin American nations became modernized and strong enough, they began to isolate, subjugate, and forced relocate natives.
- Independence movement began in 1810 under leadership of priest Miguel Hidalgo who failed but ignited Mexican nationalism and Mexico declared independence in 1821 and became a republic in 1823.
- Mexico lost Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua due to regionalism.
- Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna abused his power and lost Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Colorado to the U.S.
- Benito Juarez brought liberal reforms after the disastrous Santa Anna.
- France invaded and Mexico won its independence from the French.
- Dictatorship under PORTFINO DIAZ where foreign investors owned 25% of the land whereas 95% of Mexicans owned no land. Lasted until mestizo-led revolution in 1910 to end elite creole dominance.
Spanish South America
- Simon Bolivar led independence movements against Spain in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. He established Gran Colombia, but regionalism prevented the union and thus broke up into the three nations.
- Jose de San Martin led independence movements against Spain in Argentina. Regionalism led to establishment of Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Uruguay, and Paraguay.
- King John fled from Portugal to Brazil to escape Napoleon's conquest of the Iberian Peninsula. Once Napoleon fell, King John returned and left his son, Pedro, as regent.
- Liberal-minded, Pedro declared Brazil's independence in 1822 and established a constitutional monarchy and liberal policies.
- Most Brazilian elites did not favor Pedro I's policies, especially ending slavery, since the Brazilian economy depended on plantations.